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Lebialem Highlands Initiative

Lebialem Highlands Initiative

General Background Assessment

 Introduction             

The Lebialem Highlands is located on the mountainous northeastern part of South West Region. It is bordered to the East by West Region, South and South West by the Banyang – Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary (BMWS) and North by Momo Division in the North West Region. The area ranges from 180m to about 2510m above sea level. It is situated between latitudes 5o 11” and 5o 45” and longitudes 9o 50” and 10o 00”. This landscape is located in a zone with a humid tropical climate. The average rainfall is about 3,500mm, (Gartlan, 1989) with the peak in August. It has a distinct dry (November to February) and rainy (March to October) season. The daily temperatures vary between 20°c and 35°c, with the peak in March. Lebialem Highlands are part of Western Cameroon region situated within the Cameroon-Nigeria cross-border forests and known to be extra-ordinary diverse with a high degree of endemism (Davis et al, 1994). It has been observed that the cross-border area is floristically diverse when compared to other forests in the Guineo-Congolian region (Terry et al, 2003).The Highlands’ dense, lush rainforests have been blessed by four flagship species, three of them primates: the Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilladeilhi) of which less than 300 remain in the wild; the Endangered Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes ellioti), the most threatened of chimp subspecies likely numbering fewer than 6,000 individuals; the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus); as well as the Vulnerable African forest elephant (Loxodonta Acyclotis). This area contains 84 % of known African primates, 68 % of known African passerine birds and 66 % of known African butterflies (Groombridge and Jenkins, 2000). This area has been classified by WWF as a biodiversity hotspot and one of the Global 200.The Lebialem Highlands is ranked among the first five most biologically diverse conservation sites in Cameroon in terms of number globally threatened biodiversity species as well as the number of endemics found here given its combined tropical rainforest, piedmont, montane and savanna-type vegetations (Nkembi, 2006).

Landscape species diversity

This particular hotspot is home to many primates, and a number of endemic species and subspecies other than the Cross River Gorilla (this includes, Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Preuss’s gibbon, forest elephants, forest buffalo, duiker, 26 endemic birds). Several parts of the Cross River region have been designated by Birdlife International as important bird areas, and USAID’s Central African Regional Program for the Environment has named it a landscape of High Conservation Priority (EruDeF, 2009).

Ornithological inventories showed that the THWS and its peripheral zone host  about  328 bird species recorded; 8 threatened, 17 restricted, 24 afro-montane, 6 birds of savannah and a large number of Guinea–Congolian species. Research survey also showed that Lebialem highlands host enormous species of amphibians most of which are global threatened according to the IUCN Red List.

 Landscape threatened species

Common name Scientific name IUCN Category
Cross River Gorilla Gorrila gorilla deihli Critically endangered (CR)
Nigerian-Cameroon Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti Endangered (EN)
Preuss’s Monkey Cercopithecus preussi Endangered  (EN)
Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus Endangered(EN)
African Forest Elephant Loxodonta africana cyclotis Vulnerable (VU)
Giant pangolin Smutsia gigantean Vulnerable (VU)
White-bellied pangolin Phataginus tricuspis Vulnerable (VU)
leopard Panthera pardus Vulnerable(VU)
Dwarf galago Galago demidovi Near threatened (NR)
Wild Cat Felis sylverstris Vulnerable (VU)
                                   Threatened Birds Species
Bannerman’s turaco Turaco bannermani Endangered(EN)
Banded wattle-eye Platysteira laticincta Endangered (EN)
Bannerman’s weaver Ploceus bannermani Vulnerable(VU)
Green Breasted Bush shrike Malacontus cruentus Vulnerable(VU)
Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas Vulnerable(VU)
Cameroon montane greenbul Andropadus montanus Near Threatened(NT)
                       Threatened Amphibians
Cameroon slippery frog Conraua robusta Vulnerable(VU)
Goliath frog Conraua goliath Endangered(EN)
Hairy frog Trichobatrachus robustus Vulnerable(VU)
 Highland long-fingered frog Cardioglossa venusta Endangered (EN)
Bamboutos Small-tongue Toad, Werneria bambutensis Amiet Critically endangered
Wolterstorff Toad, Wolterstorffina mirei Perret Endangered(EN)
Central Night Frog, Astylosternus ranoides Amiet Endangered (EN)
Mt Oku  Long-fingered frog Cardioglossa oreas Amiet, Endangered(EN)
Mt Bamboutos egg frog Leptodactylodon axillaxis Critically endangered(CR)
              Threatened Plant Species
Argocoffeopsis fossimondi (Tchiengue & Cheek) Rubiaceae Critically endangered (CR)
Impatiens letouzeyi Grey-Wilson Balsaminaceae Endangered  (EN)
Heckeldora ledermannii Meliaceae Endangered  (EN)
Leptonychia kemerunensis Sterculiaceae Endangered  (EN)
Schefflera hierniana Harms Araliaceae Endangered  (EN)
Begonia preussii   Warb Begoniaceae Vulnerable(VU)
Plectranthus punctatus Labiatae Vulnerable (VU)
Prunus Prunus africana Endangered  (EN)

Key Threats and Challenge to Conservation over the Landscape

Four major threats to biodiversity conservation were registered within the Lebialem highland namely (1) Forest conversion to farmland (the most single biggest threat to habitat conservation). The rapidly increasing human population poses serious threats to the existing land area for conservation. This needs to be tackled immediately and urgently; (2) Corridor fragmentation is another key conservation threat as it could lead to the local extinction of these globally threatened species in their isolated habitats (Oates et al. 2003). (3)Poaching and hunting of wildlife. (4) Suppressed and marginalized local economy. This is of very serious concern and the principal driver behind rampant and rapid forest conversion to farms and poaching given that they earn less than 1USD per day.

Root causes of biodiversity decline

Increasing Human Encroachment

 This target area is populated by many humans who have encroached on territory such as clearing forests for timber and to create fields for agriculture and livestock.  Much of the habitat areas that probably harbored gorillas in the past has been lost to agriculture or, through burning by pastoralists, converted to grasslands resulting to habitat loss for the rare apes. Upgraded roads in the gorillas’ range also contribute to habitat loss and fragmentation, as they open up new areas for settlement and cultivation, and act as barriers to wildlife migration. The increasing human pressure on the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, Tofala-Mone corridor, Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, Santchou Wildlife Reserve proposed Njaowi Fotabong III-Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary and Mt Bamboutos is resulting from the fact that the central and local government agencies are willing and supportive but not able to provide support in terms of effective law enforcement and inadequate social and economic development interventions. The direct consequence is a continuous biodiversity and habitat loss. Degradation of habitat areas has led to lack of nesting trees and fruit bearing trees mostly used by the Great Apes and the vulnerability of other threatened wildlife species.  

Inadequate and poor governance across the landscape

Poor governance and lack of active involvement of the relevant Government Departments and authorities aggravates the issues of poor protection and conservation of flora and fauna. Efficient law enforcement around these five conservation areas – the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, the Santchou game reserve, the proposed  Njaowi Fotabong III -Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary and Tofala-Mone corridor – is often hampered by a lack of logistical support, lack of ranger infrastructures, and adequate training. The fact that Mt Bamboutos is not having a protection status expose the area to immense pressure from local people due absence of conservation governance. Complete absence of coordinated landscape approach.  

Lack of initiatives to sensitize the local communities on conservation

Limited conservation awareness and few alternative sources of income, in turn drive the wildlife trade, resulting in a serious threat to great ape and other threatened species in the area. Also, there are hardly any coordinated efforts and engagement of multiple stakeholders taken up by the local NGOs, CBOs, and CSOs to bridge the information gaps.

Inadequate support of livelihood opportunities

The inadequate livelihood opportunities significantly augment dependency of the communities on forest such as hunting, poaching and logging activities. Excessive collection of Non-Timber-Forest-Produces by the communities in the target regions often disturbs the habitat of the Cross River Gorillas.

Lack of skill and expertise of Rangers and Eco-guards

The Rangers and Eco-guards considerably lack the skill and expertise to ensure effective surveillance and monitoring of the illegal activities in the target Forest and Wildlife Sanctuary. To make the situation worse, the poachers and hunters takes the advantage of poor bio-monitoring by the rangers and eco-guards and expedite rampant poaching.

Inability to integrated gender activities into conservation

The involvement of female into the participatory management of protected area is vital, this is so because women are always left behind when it comes to conservation activities or local economic development activities in these areas. Men, Women and youth in this area strongly depend on the natural resources for survival; this implies leaving out one will be costly for effective conservation in the area.

Pressure on biodiversity due Anglophone crisis

Since the outbreak of the civil war in the Anglophone parts of Cameroon many people in rural areas have been forced to be displaced into the forests. In the case of the Lebialem Highlands most of the population is being displaced into the forest where accessibility is difficult. Surveys showed the internally displaced people are greatly affecting the natural resources at their localities. This is because they solely depend in these natural resources for their livelihoods.

Related Conventions for Conservation of Natural Resources

 The sustainable use of natural resources in general, forest and wildlife resources in particular have been the priority of government since independence. As a result, Cameroon is a signatory to relevant international, regional and sub-regional conventions and treaties, with a clear legal and institutional framework to guide the use of these resources. The Lebialem Highlands conservation conception in line with Cameroon government to promote the conservation of threatened biodiversity and ecosystem.

      The Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Alger, 1968);

This Convention was entered into by the Heads of State and Government of Independent African States, undertaking individual and joint action for the conservation, utilization and development of natural resources (soil, water, flora and fauna) by establishing and maintaining their rational utilization for the present and future welfare of mankind.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1973), CITES represents a cooperative effort between countries to prevent loss of species resulting from international wildlife trade. It works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. Significantly, not one species protected by the Convention has become extinct because of trade since its implementation. The Text of the Convention which originated from a 1963 IUCN resolution was agreed by governments in 1973 and entered into force in 1975. CITES now counts over 150 member states and protects, in varying degrees, over 30,000 species.

The Convention on the Conservation of Biological Diversity (1992);

The three main goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from utilization of genetic resources. In a marked shift from previous agreements, the CBD calls for a much more holistic approach to biodiversity, by recognizing its ecosystem, species and genetic levels. The CBD was one of the major outcomes of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development – termed the “Earth Summit” – in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention has 186 Parties, with the notable exception of the United States.

D).The Yaoundé Declaration on Central African Forest Ecosystems Conservation (1999);

The Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) is the principal political and technical forum for guidance, coordination, harmonization and decision-making in the conservation and sustainable management of forest and savannah ecosystems in Central Africa. Created in 1999 by the Yaoundé Declaration, COMIFAC is composed of the Forestry Ministers of its 10 member countries and has an executive secretariat (ES) based in Yaoundé, Cameroon. COMIFAC is recognized as primary coordinator for partner activities of the Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP), a type II voluntary partnership whose primary aim is to enhance natural resource management and improve the standard of living in the Congo Basin.

 The Treaty on Conservation of Central African Forest Ecosystems (COMIFAC, Brazzaville, 2005);

The COMIFAC Convergence Plan, last revised in 2005, has the vision of sustainable and joint management by Central African States of their forest resources for the wellbeing of their people, the preservation of biodiversity and the protection of the global environment. COMIFAC, 2005, resulted in its current Convergence Plan. The 2005 summit also resulted in COMIFAC becoming a treaty based organization, transforming COMIFAC into a legal entity empowered with full responsibility to coordinate all conservation initiatives in the Congo Basin. The treaty also provides a strong legal framework for negotiating with bilateral and multilateral funding agencies to establish long-term funding mechanisms for these initiatives.

Assessment of Current and Previous Conservation Projects in the Lebialem Highlands

The landscape is located in a mountainous and undulating environment which makes accessibility quite difficult in the area. There have been four key projects after the creation of the first conservation complex in the landscape. These projects include the Creation and management of the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, the creation and management of the Njoawi Fotabong III Essoh- Ettah Wildlife Sanctuary, the Mt. Bamboutus conservation initiative and the creation and management of the Tofala –Mone corridor.

Protected Areas’ creation and management Projects

The Management of Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary  

THWS was created 2014 with an area 8087ha.The conservation service placed under the responsibility of the Conservator divided the sanctuary into 5 conservation sectors (Bechati, Folepi-Banti,Besali-Nkong-Bangang,Egumbo-Bamumbu,Fossungu-Fossimockmbi-Fossimondi) and two clusters (Wabane and Alou). The partition aims at not only ensuring the reinforcement of surveillance patrol and other field activities but also to ease cooperation with the local communities.

Sensitization of the local communities on the 1994 Forestry Law, as well as the formation and functioning of Village Forest Management Committees (VFMCs) was put in place.  Nine (09) out of the eleven (11) support zone villages have VFMCs created and a number of sensitization meetings were organized. The sanctuary service organizes regular patrols to control illegal activities in and around the sanctuary. Patrol is carried out monthly with the collaboration of government eco-guards with the technical support of ERuDeF. ERuDeF has recruited 6 community rangers who collect field monthly bio-monitoring data and participate in the mixed patrols with government eco-guards. This has tremendously curbed down threats in the sanctuary. Since 2009 to 2016 conservation education in schools and communities in Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary carried out by ERuDeF has greatly changed the attitudes and perception of local people for sustainable exploitation of natural resources. This was through wildlife and nature art workshop; planting of trees in schools and water catchment; organize teachers training workshop; support school infrastructural development and scholarship programme for needy students; follow up radio program and distribute Green Vision newspapers in communities.

 A total number of 13 communities and 41 schools were visited for EE in Tofala during which 21 EE lessons were delivered with an average of 7 EE lessons per year. Over 20 000 peoples and 1000 students were educated. Over 35 local postcards where produced. Nature Arts and Craft Workshop was organized in Mmouckmbie and Wabane in 2013 and 2015 respectively with about 40 participants. More than 100 paintings were produced on boards and others on paper. Rainforest expedition was successfully carried out in Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary in 2016 with 5 students on the great apes in the wild; Threat facing wildlife as a result of man’s activities in their habitats were studies. Chimpanzees’ signs constituted the most abundant Great Apes sign in the area. In school forestry project many activities were implemented from 2004 to 2016. More than 25 tree nurseries were created and over 5000 tree seedlings planted within school premises and water catchments. More than 20 school gardens were equally created with trees integrated in the gardens. Since 2009, more than 300 needy students have benefited while advancing the conservation agenda of the organization.

Students and teachers are now having access to school library where they can borrow text books and use for a while before returning them back to the library. As a result of text books donated to 21 primary schools.

Text books were donated to both primary and secondary schools in Tofala, 15 primary schools in 2014 and 10 secondary schools in 2015 benefited from books donation in Tofala. As part of school infrastructural development, three toilets were constructed in primary schools in both Wabane and Alou conservation clusters in Tofala. Six rooms toilet were constructed at GS Egumbo in 2013, GS Mouckbie in 2015 and GS Banti respectively.

Livelihoods provision was one of main activity in the THWS. This is to reduce over dependency on natural resources by the local communities. ERuDeF has successfully established cottages industry on soap production on the Tofala Mone project to support development of economic opportunities, the income of 2000 farmers have increased from 2 to 5 through the promotion of sustainable exploitation and equitable benefit sharing of 10000kg echinops roots to Lewoh village .ERuDeF provided good grinding mills to Tofala women association to boost efficiency in palm oil productivity and cassava processing around the Tofala Mone Corridor. Also more than 1500 women were trained on local soap and starch production and each has set up their business.

Map of Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary 

The Creation and Management of the Proposed Njaowi Fotabong III Essoh- Attah Wildlife Sanctuary

The Proposed Njaowi Fotabong III Essoh- Ettah Wildlife Sanctuary which also a strong hold of Cross River Gorillas and Nigeria Cameroon Chimpanzees when created will secure an area of 4200ha.The creation will be completed in 2021 when its management plan will be developed and validated. The proposed Njoagwi-Fotabong III-Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary is noted for its exceptional fauna and flora species richness. It harbors the critically endangered Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilladiehli), Nigeria Cameroon chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti), drills (Mandrillusleucophaeus), the African forest elephant (Loxodontaafricanacyclotis), and other large and threatened mammals that are exposed to various threats. Thus, field observations show that all protected areas (Takamanda National Park and the Banyang Mbo and Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary) located in the landscape in which the proposed Njoagwi-Fotabong III-Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary is found are connected by a network of wildlife migrate on corridors that pass through the community forests and forest management units that are peripheral to it. The average number of chimpanzees is 170 and 7 Gorillas

This migratory flow concerns several species including elephants, gorillas, Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee and many others. If this migratory flow is continuous for a good part of the above-mentioned landscape, in the southern zone, then animals will move to two opposite directions to reach spaces considered as receptacles. The movement of wildlife has already been disturbed by the rupture of the flow towards the Santchou Wildlife Reserve due to anthropogenic pressures and various encroachments observed in this protected area. Moreover, any disruption or intensification of human activities in this space (future sanctuary) could lead to an increase in the straying of animals and more particularly elephants. This factor is likely to accelerate human-wildlife conflicts and their harmful consequences on neighboring communities.

Since 2018 effort were launched by ERuDeF to create the proposed Njoagwi-Fotabong III-Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary to safeguard the Cross River Gorilla and Nigeria-Cameroon and other globally threatened Red List species. The creation process which has been funded by the Rainforest Trust US and facilitated by ERuDeF is in its final phase awaiting the transmission of the file from the Ministry of forestry to the Prime minister for signature creating the proposed sanctuary. Creating the Sanctuary will be a great achievement but developing the management implementation plan and supporting the protection and conservation of these threatened species through implementing of the management of plans shall be a great accomplishment to ERuDeF and the Conservation Society at large

Map of proposed Njaowi Fotabong III Essoh- Attah Wildlife Sanctuary

Upgrading the Santchou Wildlife Reserve into a National Park

  The Santchou Wildlife Reserve is located at latitude 10o00’ North and longitude 50 12 East.   Altitudes within the Reserve vary from 800-1400m above sea level and close to 3/4 of the wildlife Reserve is made up of faulted escarpment which forms part of the Bamileké plateau that progresses towards Bafang from past tectonic activities, including part of the Santchou depression from the same tectonic activities.  The main objective of the creation of this reserve in 1947 was to protect/conserve the dwarf elephants and dwarf buffaloes which are now speculated to be extinct because of human pressures and interferences. A variety of endemic bird species of over 161 species that are currently present within the reserve had suffered less threat from human presence. The reserve is also a home for a variety of monkeys and other fauna amongst which are: Gabon Viper, Python, African forest elephant, buffaloes, sitatunga, bush pigs, porcupines, monitor lizard which are currently being threatened. According to Birdlife International (2015), the vegetation of the Santchou Wildlife Reserve is a mixture of Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae, dominated by semi-deciduous forest, shrubby savanna, sub-montane forest, periodically inundated swamp-forest and grassland.

The populations of several wildlife species within protected areas in Cameroon are fast declining due to anthropogenic interferences (poaching, encroaching farmlands, deforestation, bush fires and grazing related activities) or better still to the migration of species linked to visual effects of humans or intruders and habitat destruction. The Santchou Wildlife Reserve is said to be one amongst the two Important Birds and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in Cameroon where the Guinea–Congo Forests biome species, Phyllanthus atripennis prevails. As such, continuous update information on the status of the populations of these species and their habitat is essential to design effective conservation strategies within protected areas. Upgrading the Wildlife reserve into National Park will push for more conservation efforts from the site of government of Cameroon to the management of the Proposed Park. The reserve is endowed with so much biodiversity richness and supporting conservation required national and international support.    

In creating the Park, The forest reserve next to the southern part of the Santchou wildlife Reserve will be integrated into the wildlife reserve during the development of the technical note leading to creation and management of the proposed Santchou National Park

Map  of  Santchou Wildlife Reserve and Metchie-Ngoum forest Reserve

Corridor Conservation Projects

 Tofala- Mone Corridor

Tofala- Mone corridor (30000 ha) is conservation hotspot between the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mone Forest Reserve.  From 2010 to present through the bio-monitoring research, over 150 chimpanzees, about 15-20 gorillas, unknown population of buffaloes, Drills, Water chevrotain and other endangered species of fauna and flora have been recorded in this rainforest corridor. The Tofala-Mone corridor serves as a genetic corridor, linking the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary (THWS) and the Mone Forest Reserve. In particular, it connects the Cross River gorillas of THWS to those of the Takamanda National Park through the Mone Forest Reserve. From 2008 through 2012, ERuDeF has conducted regular annual biodiversity surveys in this corridor that led to it being proposed as a wildlife genetic corridor in 2010.Four community forests have been created  and the conservation and management of this corridor require the close collaboration local communities adjacent to forests.

Fifteen communities live within this forest corridor and depend on it for about 90% of their survival as confirmed by ERuDeF socio-economic surveys 2017.  Based on the importance of this rainforest block, the local communities applied to the state of Cameroon through ERuDeF to help them conserve this rich rainforest through the creation of a series of community forests. The creation of 4 community forests and update of the management plan of the FMU11002 has resulted in the protection of over 45,000ha of pristine forest between the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mone Forest Reserve. This will contribute towards the long term protection of the over 630,000 ha in the Lebialem Highlands Complex. During the first phase of the project there were concurrent projects for local economic development, cottage industries were set up within the corridor to reduced over dependence on the natural resources  

Map of Tofala-Mone corridor

Banyang-Mbo-proposed Njaowi Fotabong III-Essoh Attah-Sanctchou Corridor

The Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary was created in 1996, with the upgrading of the former Council Forest Reserve. It was the first Wildlife Sanctuary to be created in Cameroon with an area of 66200ha, and indeed the first protected area to be gazette in ten years, resulting directly from revisions made to the Forestry Law in 1994(WCS, 2003).Wildlife biodiversity survey results showed that the sanctuary is rich in mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and insects(WCS,2002). A previous study in this area indicates the presence of a rich array of some 250 mammals of which 18 are primate species. 849 bird species, 140 reptile species, 190 amphibians and more than 8,460 plant species of which about 150 are endemic and a multiplicity of unidentified insects (WCMC 1994; Birdlife International 2005; Bessong, 1995). The threatened mammals species include Drill (Papio leucophaeus), Preuss’s guenon (Cercopithecus preussi) Allen’s Galago (Galago alleni) and Dwarf Galago (Galago demidovi), Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Buffalo (Syncerus nanus, African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), Derby Eland, Hippopotamus. Several of these are sold as pets within the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary .This is done contrary to the fact that the Drill, Preussi guenon, Chimpanzee, Potto, Leopard, Galago, giant Pangolin  green Tauraco and the Grey Parrot are prohibited by Cameroon 1994 Forestry Law.

 The Santchou Wildlife Reserve is located at latitude 10o00’ North and longitude 50 12 East. The Santchou Wildlife Reserve over considerable distance is bordered by other national PAs, wildlife reserves and national parks. To the west and northwest, it is bordered by the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, to the south west by the Bakossi Mountains Wildlife Reserve and to the South West by the Bakossi National Park. Altitudes within the Reserve vary from 800-1400m above sea level. Close to ¾ of the wildlife reserve is made up of faulted escarpment which forms part of the Bamileké plateau that progresses towards Bafang from past tectonic activities, including part of the Santchou depression from the same tectonic activities.  The main objective of the creation of this reserve in 1947 was to protect/conserve the dwarf elephants and dwarf buffaloes which are now speculated to be extinct because of human pressures and interferences, and a variety of endemic bird species of over 161 species that are currently present within the reserve and had suffered less threat from human presence. The reserve is also a home for a variety of monkeys and other fauna amongst which are: Gabon Viper, Python, sitatunga, bush pigs, porcupines, monitor lizard which are currently being threatened. According to Birdlife International (2015), the vegetation of the Santchou Wildlife Reserve is a mixture of Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae, dominated semi-deciduous forest, shrubby savanna, sub-montane forest, periodically inundated swamp-forest and grassland. The populations of several endangered species within protected areas in Cameroon are fast declining due to anthropogenic interferences (poaching, encroaching farmlands, deforestation, bush fires and grazing related activities) or better still to the migration of species linked to visual effects of humans or intruders and habitat destruction. The Santchou Wildlife Reserve is said to be one amongst the two Important Birds and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in Cameroon where the Guinea–Congo Forests biome species, Phyllanthus atripennis prevails. The populations of several endangered species within protected areas in Cameroon are fast declining due to anthropogenic interferences (poaching, encroaching farmlands, deforestation, bush fires and grazing related activities) or better still to the migration of species linked to visual effects of humans or intruders and habitat destruction. As such, continuous update information on the status of the populations of these species and their habitat is essential to design effective conservation strategies within protected areas. The resulting network of commercial hunters and markets is closely linked to the country’s dependence on primary export products including agriculture and timber which has led to land clearing and road construction without relieving poverty. This has given easy access to the unsustainable exploitation of some wildlife resources often leading to biodiversity loss

Banyang-Mbo Njaowi Fotabong III-Essoh Attah-Sanctchou Corridor

Project Conceptualisation and Rationale

The efforts to conserve the Lebialem Highlands started way back in 2003, ERuDeF launched it initiative to create the first conservation complex in this area.The complex was to enhance the effective protection of the subspecies of gorillas and chimpanzees, which are the Cross River Gorillas and  and  Nigeria- Cameroon Chimpanzees. With the discovery of these species and other threatened wildlife in  the area ,a number of conservation projects have been undertaken through ceation of protected areas .These efforts have created a network of protected areas  over the landscape and wildlife species are constantly moving over long distances within forest habitats. The creation and management of conservation corridors between  protected areas  will facilitate genetic connectivity and wildlife migration in the area. Corridor creation between Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mone Forest Reserve will improve the conservation of Cross River Gorilla between the Pas, also to those of the Takamanda National Park ,the creation of the Banyang Mbo-NFEAWS-Santchou Corridor will facilitate the protection and conservation of the Great Apes  populations and other  threatened wildlife species, the African Forest Elephant.  The managemet of these protected areas required the full involvement of local communities adjacent to them. Projects are designed to involve all the key stakeholders in a colloborative managemnt approach with  main conservation activities  such as; creating and managing protected areas, building the  capacities of local people, promoting alternative livelihoods, restoring degraded areas(buffer zones), supporting sustainable finance development and mainstreaming gender into conseravtion.

The project rational is based on the fact that Cross River Gorilla and Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee are Critically Endangered and Endangered respectively sub species found mainly in pockets within the Cameroon-Nigeria forest areas. These are under immense pressure from Human activities. Though more than half of the estimated population is found in protected areas, the management of these protected areas as well as areas outside still require a concerted effort from all stakeholders for the survival of these species.The entire Cross River Gorilla population is thought to be less 300 individuals fragmented across 12 to 14 hilly enclaves along the Nigeria–Cameroon border (Nicholas et al.2010).The Nigeria–Cameroon Chimpanzee is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is considered the most threatened of all chimpanzee subspecies, numbering possibly as few as 3500 animals in the wild (Morgan et al., 2011) Hunting of Cross River Gorilla and Nigeria Cameroon Chimpanzees  has fallen considerably over the last decade partly because of increased conservation outreach and the presence of researchers (Oates et al. 2007).Nevertheless, efforts to protect remaining populations are constrained by intensive bush-meat hunting, and the main drivers of deforestation and forest degradation being forest conversion for agriculture large scale, industrial as well as slash and burn farming, fuel wood harvesting and illegal logging. Without effective management strategies, the continuing expansion of human activities in these areas will lead to further fragmentation of the remaining great ape habitats, preventing migration between sites. The creation of protected areas, conservation corridors and promoting its management will secure an area of 130, 000ha and conserves more than 50 species of cross river gorilla and 200 Nigeria- Cameroon Chimpanzees, and number of threatened species, Africa Forest Elephant, drills and other threatened plant species.

Landscape Conservation Overall Goal

Conservation of the threatened biodiversity and ecosystem in the Lebialem Highlands

Purpose

The purpose of this project is to consolidate the management of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands. (Tofala Wildlife Sanctuary, Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary, Santchou Wildlife Reserve,  Tofala-Mone Corridor,  and Banyang-Mbo-NFEAWS-Santchou Corridor).

Objectives:

  • To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands.
  • To support local economic development 
  • To promote ecosystem restoration     
  • To support sustainable finance development.
  • To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands
  • To promote applied conservation research across the landscape
  • To mainstream gender into conservation and development in the Lebialem Highlands

Project Target Areas

The Lebialem Highlands have  Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, proposed Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary, Santchou Wildlife Reserve, Mt Bamboutos, Tofala-Mone Corridor, Banyang-Mbo-Njaowi Fotabong III-Essoh Attah Wildlife Sanctuary -Santchou Corridor  as earmarked projects to be complete within a period of 5years. These projects when implemented will secure total land area of 130,000ha for effective conservation. The Lebialem Highlands is part of the Bakossi-Banyang Mbo-Lebialem Technical Operational Unit (TOU). The Technical Operations Units (TOUs) have been institutionalized by the government of Cameroon through MINFOF (Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife) to facilitate the harmonization of the actions of the different actors and also to enhance a holistic approach in the management of Protected Areas (PAs) within the landscape. The Cross River gorilla’s small total remaining population size, its fragmentation across a large complex landscape and continuing threats to its survival from habitat destruction and hunting have resulted in its status as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Collectively, Lebialem Highlands (Tofala-Mone Corridor, Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary, Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary, and Banyang Mbo-Sanchou Corridor and Mt Bamboutos) in western Cameroon host over 40 Cross River gorillas, 1000 Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee, over 200 African forest elephants, over 200 types of birds, Drills, Preuss monkeys and a host of other globally threatened species that include amphibians (Goliath Frog) and flora. Tofala-Mone Corridor(45,000 ha) remains amongst the most deserved linkages to be created for the movement of Cross River Gorilla, Nigeria -Cameroon chimpanzee and the African forest elephant from the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary to Mone community forest Reserve .This also create a linkage to those from the Takamnda National Park. Njoagwi-Fotabong III-Essoh-Ettah Wildlife Sanctuary with an area of 42000ha habours also the Critically Endangered Cross River Gorilla and the Endangered Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees, the management implementation plan will be developed taken into consideration the socio- economic activities of the local communities around the sanctuary and in collaboration with the sanctuary management board service. The Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary (8087ha) management and business plan has included all necessary aspects to properly manage the Sanctuary, therefore, it implementation plan has the key objectives which are the integration  local communities in most activities and most projects are geared toward wildlife conservation and beneficiary to local inhabitants. The Banyang Mbo- Santchou corridor will itself facilitate the conservation of wildlife species most especially the Vulnerable African Forest Elephant between the two protected areas by providing a functional linkage for genetic connectivity and wildlife movement from either Banyang Mbo to Santchou Wildlife Reserve and Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary or vice visa. ERuDeF has started desktop research and is current mobilization resources to work with the government of Cameroon to upgrade the Santchou Wildlife Reserve into National Park. The Mietchete Forest Reserve will be integrated as part of the park.

Target areas

Activities

Objective. To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands

Task: Support the management implementation plan of Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary

Task:Support law enforcement

Activities

  • Conduct training of eco-guards and community guides on law enforcement, patrol and surveillance     
  • Create and strengthened 5 Village Forest Management Committee (VFMC)
  • Equip and support VFMCs in management of the forest
  • Training of VFMCs Members on their role in the protection and management of biodiversity in the area
  • Construction of office and 2 rangers station around the THWS
  • Conduct monthly patrols with Eco-guards and local Rangers

Task: Support education for sustainable development

Activities

  • Training of Teacher on Environmental Education
  • Create and Strengthen environmental clubs
  • Support the development of basic school infrastructures (benches and books)
  • Support scholarship scheme for needy students
  • Carry outfield expedition with students
  • Participate in local radio and TV programs
  • Production and distribution of environmental postal education and sensitization materials
  •  

Support continues research and bio-monitoring on fauna

  • Identification and recruitment of field assistant and community field guides
  • Training of field assistants and community field guides
  • Conduct monthly forest surveillance
  • Conduct biological research to determine the population and distribution of large mammals, amphibians and birds in the area
  • Conduct surveys on habitat characterization of THWS

Conduct flora research

Activities

  • Train fields guides on plant research
  • Conduct research and produce a data base of plant species.
  • Carry out research and produce distribution maps for areas with favorable apes used plants 
  • Identify threatened plants species in the areas

Task:Support ecotourism development

  • Identification of cultural and ecotourism sites
  • Elaborate and promotion of a functioning ecotourism plan
  • Support local development and valorization of ecotourism
  • Construct, equip and assure the functioning, maintain and equip the reception centre
  • Construct and equip ecolodge
  • Identify and train tourist guides
  • Construct a miradors

Task : Support the creation and management of the proposed Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary

Task: Complete the creation of the proposed Njoagwi-Fotabong III-Essoh Ettah Wildlife Sanctuary.

Activities

  • Follow up for the signature creating the Sanctuary by the Prime Minister.

Task:Support the management of the Sanctuary proposed Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary

 Task: Develop and validate the management and business plan

Activities:

  • Carry out additional biological surveys in view of the preparation of the management plan
  • Carry out additional biological surveys in view of the preparation of the management plan
  • Carry out additional eco-touristic survey
  • Follow up the organization of the Technical Committee and task force by the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife that will be charge with the review and elaboration of the management plan
  • Organize meeting to validate all survey report by the Technical Committee
  • Hiring of a Consultant for the preparation of Management Plan and Business Plan
  • Preparation of Management and Business Plan
  • Organize Second Technical Committee meeting and First Task for meeting
  • Carry out micro-zoning survey
  • Carry out village to village validation
  • Organize 3rd Technical Committee meeting and 2nd taskforce meeting
  • Carry out subdivisional validation
  • Carry out Divisonal validation meeting
  • Organize 4th Technical Committee meeting and 3rd taskforce meeting
  • Organize Regional Validation meeting
  • Organize 5th Technical Committee meeting and 4th taskforce meeting
  • Organize National Validation meeting
  • Organize 5th Taskforce meeting for final update of the document and submission to MINFOF Yaounde
  • Follow up signature of Management Plan by the Prime Minister

Task: Support law enforcement

Activities

  • Conduct training of eco-guards and community guide on law enforcement and patrol and surveillance method and used of tools, data entry and reporting
  • Create and strengthened 5 Village Forest Management Committee (VFMC)
  • Equip and support VFMCs in management of the forest
  • Training of VFMCs Members on their role in the protection and management of biodiversity in the area
  • Construction of office and 2 rangers station around the proposed Sanctuary

Task: Support continues research and bio-monitoring

Activities

  • Identification and recruitment of field assistant and community field guides
  • Training of field assistance and community field guides.
  • Conduct monthly forest surveillance
  • Conduct biological research to determine the population and distribution of large mammals, amphibians, birds, and plants in the area
  • Conduct surveys on habitat characterization of the Njoagwi- Fotabong III-Essoh-Attah Wildlife Sanctuary

Task : Promote education for sustainable development

Activities

  • Training of Teacher on Environmental Education
  • Create and Strengthen environmental clubs
  • Support the development of basic school infrastructures (benches and books)
  • Support scholarship scheme for needy students
  • Carry outfield expedition with students
  • Participate in local radio and TV programs
  • Production and distribution of environmental postal education and sensitization materials

Task: Support ecotourism development

Activities

  • Identification of cultural and ecotourism sites
  • Elaborate and promotion of a functioning ecotourism plan
  • Support local development and valorization of ecotourism
  • Construct, equip and assures the functioning, maintain and equip the reception centre
  • Construct and equip ecolodge
  • Identify and train tourism guides
  • Construct a miradors

  Task:To upgrade and support the management implementation of the Santchou Wildlife Reserve

Task :Production of the technical note

Activities

  • Project induction workshop
  • Conduct biological surveys for the development of a technical note
  • Conduct socioeconomic survey for the production of a technical note
  • Prepare the Technical Note
  • Submission of Technical Note to the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife
  • Follow up the publication of a Public Notice by the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife
  • Collection and distribution of Public Notice

Task:Decree creating the proposed Santchou National Park

Activities

  • Carry out village to village sensitization
  • Carry out sensitization of Administrative Authorities
  • Carry out sensitization of Traditional Authorities and Elites
  • Carryout Divisional Commission meeting
  • Compilation and submission of file to the Prime Minister
  • Follow up the signature of the Prime Minister
  • Final Signature of the Prime Minister
  • Launching the creation of the Santchou National Park

Task:Production of Management and Business Plans

Activities

  • Carry out additional biological surveys in view of the preparation of the management plan
  • Carry out additional socio-economic survey
  • Carry out additional eco-touristic survey
  • Follow up the organization of the Technical Committee and task force by the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife that will be charge with the review and elaboration of the management plan
  • Organize meeting to validate all survey report by the Technical Committee
  • Hiring of a Consultant for the preparation of Management Plan and Business Plan
  • Preparation of Management and Business Plan
  • Organize Second Technical Committee meeting and First Task for meeting
  • Carry out micro-zoning survey
  • Carry out village to village validation
  • Organize 3rd Technical Committee meeting and 2nd taskforce meeting
  • Carry out subdivisional validation
  • Carry out Divisonal validation meeting
  • Organize 4th Technical Committee meeting and 3rd taskforce meeting
  • Organize Regional Validation meeting
  • Organize 5th Technical Committee meeting and 4th taskforce meeting
  • Organize National Validation meeting
  • Organize 5th Taskforce meeting for final update of the document and submission to MINFOF Yaounde
  • Follow up signature of Management Plan by the Prime Minister

 Task:Support the Management of the Proposed Santchou National Park.

Task:Support law enforcement

Activities

  • Support monthly patrols and forest surveillance
  • Reorganization and strengthen of Village Forest Management Committee
  • Equip and support VFMCs in management of the forest
  • Recruit and train local field guide
  • .Purchase of patrol equipment

Task: Support continues Research and Biomonitoring

Activities

  • Identification and recruitment of field assistant and community field guides
  • Training of field assistance and community field guides.
  • Conduct monthly forest surveillance
  • Conduct biological research to determine the population and distribution of large mammals, amphibians, birds, and plants in the area
  • Conduct surveys on habitat characterization of the SNP

Task:Education for Sustainable Development

Activities

  • Training of teacher on environmental education
  • Create and strengthen environmental clubs   
  • Support the development of basic school infrastructures (benches and books)
  • Support scholarship scheme for needy students
  • Carry outfield expedition with students
  • Participate in local radio and TV programs
  • Production and distribution of environmental postal education and sensitization materials

 Task1.4.4.4.Support ecotourism development

Activities

  • Identification of cultural and ecotourism sites
  • Elaborate and promotion of a functioning ecotourism plan
  • Support local development and valorization of ecotourism
  • Construct, equip and assure the functioning, maintain and equip the reception centre
  • Construct and equip ecolodge
  • Identify and train tourist guides
  • Construct a miradors

Task:Creation of the Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve

Task:Production of the technical note

Activities

  • Conduct project induction workshop
  • Conduct biological surveys for the development of a technical note
  • Conduct socioeconomic survey for the production of a technical note
  • Prepare the Technical Note
  • Submission of Technical Note to the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife
  • Follow up the publication of a Public Notice by the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife
  • Collection and distribution of Public Notice

Task1.5.2. Decree creating the proposed Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve

Activities

  • Carry out village to village sensitization
  • Carry out sensitization of Administrative Authorities
  • Carry out sensitization of Traditional Authorities and Elites
  • Carryout Divisional Commission meeting
  • Compilation and submission of file to the Prime Minister
  • Follow up the signature of the Prime Minister
  • Final Signature of the Prime Minister
  • Launching the creation of Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve
  •  

Task:Support the management of the Tofala-Mone corridor

Task:To complete the creation of four community forests safeguarding 15397ha by developing   simple management plans 

  • Conduct socio-economic and environmental surveys
  • Delineation of the boundaries of the four community forests
  • Creation of internal boundaries and blocking of the four community forests
  • Conduct multi-resource inventory
  • Hire a consultant for preparing of the simple management plans
  • Prepare four draft simple management plans for four community forests
  • Hold 8 workshops (Two per community forest) with the local community members to prepare and validate the first 5-year simple management plans for the four community forests
  • Hold 8 workshops (two per community forest) to validate the four Simple Management Plans at the Divisional Level
  • Hold 8 workshops (two per community forest) to validate the Simple Management Plans at the Regional level
  • Hold 4 workshops for the preparation and signing of four final management Agreements
  • Follow up the approval of the four simple management plans and final management agreement by the minister of Forestry and Wildlife

Task:To promote community based monitoring of great apes population in the corridor  through the engagement of  local rangers, VFMCs, eco-guards  and community forest  management institutions

Activities:

  • Participatory identification and sensitization of relevant stakeholders 
  • Create and reorganized community based conservation institutions
  • Identification training needs of community based conservation institutions and eco-guards  
  • Prepare training modules on the identified training needs
  • Organise 4 training workshops for community forest management institutions(48 persons)  and 10 for VFMCS (80 persons)   on law enforcement , patrol,  surveillance , data entry , reporting, wildlife and forest  monitoring  tools  such as  Camera traps, GPS, Cyber trackers and Compass
  • Equip and support VFMCs with data sheets, rain coats ,rain boats, GPS, Compass, Sleeping mats, Cyber trackers, Camera, Tents ,Camera traps  
  • Conduct monthly monitoring, patrols and forest surveillance along the corridor 

Task: To continue the development of cottage industries (apiculture, forest base products value chain, palm kennel processing and livestock farming) while promoting conservation education and vocational training in the corridor

Task: Promote conservation education and vocational training

Activities:

  • Hold village to village conservation sensitization and education meetings in target communities
  • Identify and prioritize vocational trade needs for youths and women
  • Support the training of at least 100 community members (70% women and 30%men) on five priorities vocational trade needs
  • Support the trained community members with startup equipment
  • Creation of 10 Environmental Clubs in 10 schools around the Tofala -Mone
  • Carry out schools environmental education sessions in at least 10 schools
  • Carry out 3 rain forest expedition with students
  • Production of environmental education materials for dissemination in schools (12 editions of Green Vision News Paper, news articles, 300 posters, short films ) 
  • Carry out monthly radio and quarterly TV environmental related issues to sensitize the public
  • .Purchase of communication materials (computers, recorders, cameras, etc)
  • Conduct impact survey of beneficiaries and estimate human pressure on conservation habitat

Task: Setting up of the cottage industries    

  • Hold village to village sensitization meetings in target communities on cottage industries
  • Identify hunters, poachers and farmers and train them on apiculture, forest based products value chain, palm kernel processing and livestock farming
  • Reorganize the Kendem Palm Oil cooperative and storage facilities
  • Signing of the memorandum of understanding (MOU) with members of the cooperative and village heads
  • Develop business and marketing plans for apiculture, forest products value chain and livestock farming
  • Support 150 community members with 1500 bee hives
  • Support 200 community members with 400 piglets
  • Develop the market information system
  • Set up palm kernel processing unit 
  • Set up forest based products processing units (bush mango and njangsa processing)
  • Conduct impact survey of beneficiaries and estimate human pressure on conservation habitat

Task:To establish effective community forest monitoring using  Global Forest  Watch App as a Tool and remote sensing to  obtain informed decisions on deforestation and illegal hunting of  wildlife  and habitats destruction

  • Purchase of smart phones and installs the Forest Watcher App
  • Training of ERuDeF staff on the use of Forest Watcher App, production of maps using QGIS and GPS
  • Training of Forest Management Institutions on the use of GPS and forest watcher app installed in smart phones
  • Conduct remote sensing in the target area
  • Conduct participatory mapping exercise to collect and display local knowledge about bio-vegetation cover, current and historical land use on the 3D model
  • Develop a community led forest monitoring protocol using GFW as a tool
  • .Conduct locally informed and GFW guided forest surveys to collect and validate deforestation and forest degradation data in the community and state forests
  • Transfer of field data unto the P3D Model and digitize into QGIS
  • Presentation of results to relevant stakeholders for decision making 

Task:Creation and management of the Banyang Mbo-Proposed NFEAWS-Santchou corridor

Task:Production of a Technical note

Activities

  • Survey and Characterization of the corridor
  • Conduct training of Research Assistants and field guides on survey methods and tools
  • Carry out ecological monitoring to determine population distribution and movement patterns of wildlife within the corridor
  • Map out the corridor, distribution pattern and movement of wildlife
  • Production of survey report

Task:Creation of 3 community forests   

Activities

  • Sensitization of community members
  • Conduct multi resource inventory in the 3 community forest
  • Mapping of 3 community forest area boundaries
  • Carry out 3 consultation meetings
  • Compilation of file and submission at the Divisional Level
  • Follow up signature of files at the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife Yaounde

 Task:To complete the creation of three community forests by developing three simple management plans 

Activities:

  • Conduct socio-Economic and environmental surveys
  • Delineation of the boundaries of the four community forests
  • Creation of internal boundaries and blocking of the four community forests
  • Conduct multi-resource inventory
  • Hire a consultant for preparing of the simple management plans
  • Prepare four draft simple management plans for four community forests
  • Hold 8 workshops (Two per community forest) with the local community members to prepare and validate the first 5-year simple management plans for the four community forests
  • Hold 8 workshops (two per community forest) to validate the four Simple Management Plans at the Divisional Level
  • Hold 8 workshops (two per community forest) to validate the Simple Management Plans at the Regional level
  • Hold 4 workshops for the preparation and signing of four final management Agreements
  • Follow up the approval of the four simple management plans and final management agreement by the minister of Forestry and Wildlife

Task:To promote community based monitoring of great apes population in the corridor through the engagement of local rangers, VFMCs, eco-guards and community forest management institutions

Activities:

  • Participatory identification and sensitization of relevant stakeholders 
  • Create and reorganized community based conservation institutions
  • Identification training needs of community based conservation institutions and eco-guards  
  • Prepare training modules on the identified training needs
  • Organise 4 training workshops for community forest management institutions(48 persons)  and 10 for VFMCS (80 persons) on law enforcement , patrol,  surveillance , data entry , reporting , wildlife and forest  monitoring  tools  such as  Camera traps,  GPS , Cyber trackers and Compass
  • Conduct monthly monitoring, patrols and forest surveillance along the corridor 

Task: To promote the development of cottage industries (apiculture, forest base products value chain, palm kennel processing and livestock farming) while promoting conservation education and vocational training in the corridor

Task: Promote conservation education and vocational training

Activities:

  • Hold village to village conservation sensitization and education meetings in target communities
  • Identify and prioritize vocational trade needs for youths and women
  • Support the training of at least 100 community members (70% women and 30%men) on five priorities vocational trade needs
  • Support the trained community members with startup equipment
  • Creation of 10 Environmental Clubs in 10 schools around the Tofala -Mone
  • Carry out schools environmental education sessions in at least 10 schools
  • Carry out 3 rain forest expedition with students
  • Production of environmental education materials for dissemination in schools (12 editions of Green Vision News Paper, news articles, 300 posters, short films ) 
  • Carry out monthly radio and quarterly TV environmental related issues to sensitize the public
  • Purchase of communication materials (computers, recorders, cameras, etc)
  • Conduct impact survey of beneficiaries and estimate human pressure on conservation habitats

Task1:To establish effective community forest monitoring using  Global Forest  Watch as a Tool and remote sensing to obtain informed decisions on deforestation and illegal hunting of  wildlife  and habitats destruction

  • Purchase of smart phones and installs the Forest Watcher App
  • Training of ERuDeF staff on the use of Forest Watcher App, production of maps using QGIS and GPS
  • Training of Forest Management Institutions on the use of GPS and forest watcher app installed in smart phones
  • Conduct remote sensing in the target area
  • Conduct participatory mapping exercise to collect and display local knowledge about bio-vegetation cover, current and historical land use on the 3D model
  • Develop a community led forest monitoring protocol using GFW as a tool
  • Conduct locally informed and GFW guided forest surveys to collect and validate deforestation and forest degradation data in the community and state forests
  • Transfer of field data unto the P3D Model and digitize into QGIS
  • Presentation of results to relevant stakeholders for decision making 

Objective To support local economic development in the landscape

 Task:Promote livestock production

Activities:

  • Participatory identification village associations              
  • Organize training workshop on piggery production
  • Purchase of piggery and distribution
  • Setting up production stations
  • Monitoring and sharing amongst members

Task: Promotion of a sustainable apiculture practices

Activities:

  • Mobilization of village on apiculture training
  • Organize training workshop on apiculture
  • Provision of hives construction materials
  • Transform honey to finish products

Task:Valorisation of non timber forest products

Activities:

  • Organise a meeting for mobilization of village NTFPs collectors in to group
  • Elaborate and implement guidelines for NTFP harvesting
  • Training on sustainable NTFP exploitation and transformation
  • Promote Agroforestry and domestication of NTFPs
  • Provide preservation materials and later storage in cooperative building

Task:Creation and support cooperative enterprises

Activities:

  • Sensitization of community members
  • Mobilisation of community into groups of common interest
  • Developed article of association for the formation of cooperatives
  • Training and capacity building of Cooperative members
  • Formation of executive board members for the smooth running of the cooperative
  • Formation of cooperative
  • Follow up the legalization of the cooperative                                                                                             
  • Training on the management of the cooperative
  • Development of business and financial plan of cooperative
  • Support the implementation of the business plan

Objective:To promote ecosystem restoration through forest gardening

Task: Set up the Lebialem Highlands forestry centre

Activities:

  • Participatory identification degraded areas
  • Create training center for youth
  • Creation and training of nursery management committees 
  • Identification and training of nursery Assistants
  • Collection and Purchase nursery seeds
  • Follow up and management of nurseries
  • Transplanting of seedlings to degraded areas
  • Establish a seed banks for improved nurseries
  • Monitoring of transplanted seedlings

Objective:To promote sustainable conservation finance Development

Task :Develop a microfinance cooperative

Activities:

  • Mobilization and sensitization
  • Development of article of association and legalization
  • Training and capacity building of members
  • Legalisation of cooperatives
  • Capitilisation of the finance cooperatives  
  • Follow up and monitoring                                                                                         
  •  Task :Develop a forest protection fund

Activities:

  • Mobilization and sensitization
  • .Development of article of association and legalization of Forest Protection Fund (FoProF)
  • Training and capacity on the management of FoProF
  • Follow up monitoring of FoProF
  • Cappitilisation of the conservation foundation

Objective :To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands

Task :Creation of the Lebialem Highlands conservation platform for sustainable Development (CSO, Private sector, companies, INGOs, Government)

Activities:

  • Identification of stakeholders
  • Workshop for the creation of the forum
  • Legalization of the forum
  • Coordination and functioning of the stakeholder forum

Task:Promote conservation activities with the platform

  • Organise participatory workshop with the different stakeholders
  • Carry out capacity building on key governance issues
  • Organize periodic meetings for information flow
  • Conduct assessment of protected areas management
  • Develop simple governance plan to help local authorities in the conservation activities in the landscape
  • Conduct participatory monitoring and evaluation programmes

Objective: To promote applied research of fauna and flora

Task: Promotion of fauna and flora research in schools

Activities:

  • Train selected students on research methods  
  • Support post graduate students research focused on biodiversity through financial funding
  • Support good quantity and quality research data   

Task: Capitalize the projects conducted in the Lebialem Highlands since 2003 through publications and peer reviewed papers.

Activities:

  • Create a data bank on past and present unpublished researches on the Lebialem Highlands
  • Hiring a research assistant for publications
  • Produce and submit draft of the publications
  • Follow up for publication

Objective :To Support gender mainstreaming into conservation for sustainable development in the Lebialem Highlands

Task:Mainstreaming gender into conservation activities.

Activities:

  • Organize inception workshops with the population
  • Mobilized and sensitized women and youths on ecosystem management and biodiversity restoration
  • Conduct assessment of crisis related gender issues
  • Carry out gender analysis, advocacy into sectorial planning
  • Carry out rehabilitation after the crisis
  • Training on soap production amongst internally displaced Placed people in the area
  • Carried out field survey to develop a gender action plan for the Lebialem Highlands Initiative through the identification of Key Enabling factors that contributes to women’s inclusion at the community and institutional level
  • Donation of recovery funds to internally displaced Placed to commence soap production business

Task: Support sustainable management of human population

Activities:

  • Training of women on reproductive health
  • .Support girl students with hygiene and sanitation materials

Methods

Objectives:To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands. For the creation of  National park, wildlife  sanctuary and Reserve, sensitization meetings will be organized envolving government officials, traditional authorities, local community members and civil society organizations in the target area. Socio-economic and wildlife survey reports will be exploited to produced the draft technical note for protected area creation that will be validated  by the Regional Delegate of Forestry And Wildlife of the  South West Region. Meeting reports and technical note will will latter be transmitted to the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife be the regional delegate the same ministry. The minister of Forestry And Wildlife will use the technical note and consultative meeting reports to prepare and sign the ‘’Public Notice’’. The Public Notice will hence be distributed and pasted across all the villages involve in the project. This will then be followed by village to village sensitization meeting on public notice. The Divisional Commission on the creation of the new protected area will be organized after which all gazettement documents will be sent to the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife and continues follow-up through hierarchy for final signature by the Prime Minister. The creation process will therefore end with the collection and launching the creation of the   National Park.

During the development of the Management plan, additional surveys will be conducted in view of the preparation of the management plan. Review and conduct desktop audit of available reports on the proposed National Park which will be validated by the Task force.  After the validation, the technical committee prepares the final road map for the development and validation of the management plan. The management and business plan are produce with the help of a consultant. There after validation of the management at the village level, sub divisional level, divisional level, regional level and national level. After each level of validation, the technical and task force meeting is organized to deliberate on the resolutions of each meeting and proposed way forward. After which, the final Management plan and Business plan are signed by the Prime Minister. There will also be physical demarcation of the new Park boundary involving all local communities.

 The management of protected area will involve conducting monthly patrols and forest surveillance, concerted conservation programmes such as environment education in schools and the public, research and bio-monitoring and ecotourism development.

The creation of corridor requires the series of community forest. In creating community forest require multi-resource inventory. Map out the corridor, distribution pattern and movement of wildlife, survey and Characterization of the corridor. Carry out 3 consultation meetings and mapping of 3 community forest area boundaries. Finally the file will be Compiled and submitted at the Divisional Level for signature

Objective:To support local economic development 

The local people around Pas are the main beneficiaries; a socio-economic survey will be conducted in adjacent villages to PAs. Identify the priority needs of the people. Apiculture, animal farming, valorization of NTFPS and setting up of cooperatives. This will involve sensitizing and organizing training workshops for different groups and people in the communities. Provide and set up production centers through participatory approaches.

Objectives: To promote ecosystem restoration of degraded areas

 The management team will participatory identify degraded areas with the local communities. This will involve visit to buffer zones and agricultural lands. A forestry center will be set up for production of different species of trees .Tree planting will be during favorable seasons with selected plants of economic importance.

 Objective:To support sustainable finance development

The support of sustainable finance will involve the creation of the Lebialem Highlands conservation fund. Cooperatives  enterprises will be set up

Objective: To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands

There will involve series of meetings organized to Identify of stakeholders (CSO, Private sector, companies, INGOs, Government).Workshops will be organized to create a working platform.   There will be capacity building on key governance issues. The platform will be legalized through a series of meeting

Objective: To promote applied conservation research across the landscape

Applied research will involve number of selected institutions, students with interest in conservation of wildlife and forestry will be supported through technical and financial research assistant. The publication of articles from past projects will be done through the gathering of data and assembling for publication. Publication will be done on credible conservation journals

To mainstream gender into conservation and development in the Lebialem Highlands

This will involve the integration female youth and adult into conservation activities. Sensitization meetings will be organized whereby many youths will be selected for training.   Girls and women affected during the crisis will be empowered through sensitization and training. Capacity building meetings and workshops will be organized for the integration of youth into sectorial planning. Training workshop will be organized to trained women on soap production

Project expected Outputs/outcomes

Objective: To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands

 Task:Support the management implementation plan of Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary

Outputs:

  • Ten eco-guards and nine local rangers trained and effective supporting law enforcement in the THWS
  • More than 30 than teachers trained and 50 environmental clubs created and revived to promote schools conservation education. Ten million people reached out through environmental educational TV and radio talk show programmes.
  • Biological data, movement pattern and maps of wildlife distribution documented for proper management.
  • Eco-tourism facilities developed to boost the conservation activities of the sanctuary

Task:    Creation and the management implementation plan of NFEAWS

  • A management plan produced to collaboratively manage the NFEAWS
  • At least 10 eco-guards and 9 local rangers trained and effective supporting law enforcement in the NFEAWS
  • More than 30 than teachers trained and 50 environmental clubs created and revived to promote schools conservation education. Ten million people reached out through environmental educational TVs and radios talk show programmes.
  • Biological data, movement pattern and maps of wildlife distribution documented for proper management.
  • A centralized and accessible data created
  • Eco-tourism facilities developed to boost the conservation activities of the sanctuary

Task: To upgrade and support the management implementation of the Santchou Wildlife Reserve

  • A total surface area of more than 9,000ha secured for conservation of threatened species through the creation of a National Park
  • A management implementation plan produced for the effective management of the park
  • Biological data of wildlife, movement pattern and maps of African Forest Elephant distribution documented for proper management
  • More than 30 than teachers trained and 50 environmental clubs created and revived to promote schools conservation education. Ten thousand people reached out through environmental educational TVs and radios talk show programmes.

Task: Creation of Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve

  • Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve created and effective management

 Task: Support the management of the Tofala-Mone corridor (4 Community forests)

  • Atleast 128 community conservation institutions gain knowledge on law enforcement, patrol, surveillance, data entry, reporting, wildlife and forest monitoring tools such as Camera traps,GPS,Cyber trackers and Compass and are effectively involved in the management of the corridor.
  • The reliance and pressure on biological resources and ecosystem services reduces through income generation, new employment opportunities for youths trappers and others who involved in forest habitat destructions and species extinction
  • .The long term biodiversity management of the Tofala-Mone East corridor improved through bio-monitoring and forest surveillance. The eco-guard, local rangers and community conservation institutions gain knowledge and adapt to the GFW app forest monitoring tool

Task: Creation and management of the Banyang Mbo-proposed NFEAWS- Santchou corridor

  • The Banyang Mbo-proposed NFEAWS- Santchou corridor created and effectively managed
  • Atleast 142 community conservation institutions gain knowledge on law enforcement, patrol, surveillance, data entry, reporting, wildlife and forest monitoring tools such as Camera traps, GPS, Cyber trackers and Compass and are effectively involved in the management of the corridor.
  • The reliance and pressure on biological resources and ecosystem services reduces through income generation, new employment opportunities for youths trappers and others who involved in forest habitat destructions and species extinction
  • The long term biodiversity management of the Tofala-Mone East corridor improved through bio-monitoring and forest surveillance. The eco-guard, local rangers and community conservation institutions gain knowledge and adapt to the GFW app forest monitoring tool

Objective: To promote local economic development

  • More than 50 communities provided with livestock production and apiculture to over 15000 people
  • Market value chain provided to more than 1000 women
  • Set up more 4 cooperatives across the landscape

Objective: To promote ecosystem restoration through forest gardens

  • Two forestry center established for development of nurseries.
  • More than ten thousands trees transplanted each year
  • The Lebialem forestry centre strengthened and upscale
  • Atleast 20 community members and youth trained on forest gardens per year
  • Buffer zones and agricultural areas well managed through trees planting of economically improved trees 

Objective: To promote sustainable Finance development around conservation areas

  • A microfinance cooperative developed and functioning
  • At least more than 1500 community trained on the functioning of microfinance cooperatives
  • Atleast 78% people income increased by the functioning ProFoF

Objective : To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands

  • The relevant stakeholders integrated into conservation activities around protected area
  • Protected areas assessment reports produced to foster effective conservation
  • A coalition of protected areas management set up with all stakeholders

Objective: To promote applied research across the landscape

  • Five conservation scientific articles produced to boost the conservation efforts over landscape

Objective: To Support Gender mainstreaming into conservation for sustainable development in the Lebialem Highlands

  • 70% of youth sensitized on conservation of wildlife and protection of fragile ecosystems
  • More than 20% of female youth and women trained on soap production

Logical framework for the Lebialem Highlands

Objectives Tasks Expected outcomes Indicator   Mean of verification  Timeline
1.To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highlands       Task1.1.0.Complete the validation and signing for the approval of management plan of the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary(THWS) Management and business plan validated Management and business plan Signature of Prime Minister, the Decree validating the management and business plans  
  Task1.1.1.Support law enforcement in  the THWS Monthly patrols conducted  and wildlife protected Reports Data collection sheetsreports and pictures    
Task 1.1.2. Support education for sustainable development in  the THWS   education 10,000 People sensitized and awareness raised on conservation education More than 30 environmental clubs created and students empowered Report Training manuals,Attendance sheets,Pictures and reports        
Task1.1.3. Support continues research and bio-monitoring on fauna in  the THWS   Fauna research conducted and documented Reports, Data collection sheets reports and pictures    
Task1.1.4.Conduct flora research in  the THWS   Flora research conducted  in the sanctuary  and  documented Reports, Data collection sheets, reports and pictures      
Task1.1.5.Support ecotourism development in  the THWS   Eco-tourism developed Documentation ReportsDeveloped sites and infrastructures      
Task 1.2.1. Develop and validate  the management and business plan  of the Njaowi Fotabong III Essoh – Attah Wildlife Sanctuary (NFEAWS)   Management developed and validated Management  and business  plan Signature of Minister of Forestry and wildlife        
Task1.2.2.Support law enforcement in the NFEAWS Monthly patrols conducted  and wildlife protected Reports, Data collection sheets, reports and pictures      
Task1.2.3. Support ecotourism in  the NFEAWS Eco-tourism developed   Developed sites and infrastructures Reports,Developed sites and infrastructures        
Task1.2.4. Support continues research and bio-monitoring on fauna in  the  in the NFEAWS Fauna research conducted and documented Reports, Data collection sheets, reports and pictures        
Task1.2.5. Support flora research  in the NFEAWS Flora research conducted  in the sanctuary  and  documented Reports, Data collection sheets reports and pictures        
Task1.3.4. Support education for sustainable development  in the NFEAWS education 10,000 People sensitized and awareness raised on conservation education More than 30 environmental clubs created and students empowered Reports, Training manuals,Attendance sheets,Pictures and reports  
Task1.3.5.Support ecotourism development  in the NFEAWS   Eco-tourism developed Infrastructures and  developed sites Infrastructuresand  developed sites  
Task1.4.1.Production of the technical note for the creation of proposed  Santchou National Park   Technical Note produced Technical Note Technical note  
Task 1.4.2. Decree creating the proposed Santchou National Park    Santchou National Park Created    Creation of the park by the Prime Ministerial Decree Prime Ministerial Decree creating the Park  
Task 1.4.3.Production of    Management and business  Plans     Management  plan produced and validated  for effected management  Management and Business plans Validated Management and Business  plans  
Task1.4.4.4.Support law enforcement   10 community guides are recruited and trained Monthly patrol carried Reports Training Manuals,Training manuals,Attendance sheets,Pictures and reports  
Task1.4.4.6. Support continues Research and Bio-monitoring    Comprehensive Research and Bio-monitoring conducted Reports Data collection sheets, reports and pictures  
Task 1.4.4.7.Education for sustainable development   50 teachers  trained on conservation education 10,000 People sensitized and awareness raised on conservation education More than 30 environmental clubs created and students empowered Reports Training manuals,Attendance sheets,Pictures and reports  
Task1.4.4. 5.Support ecotourism development   Eco-tourism developed Infrastructures and sites developed Infrastructuressites developed,Reports  
Task1.5.1.Creation of Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve   Mt Bamboutos Wildlife Reserve created  Decree creating the Wildlife Reserve Prime ministerial decree  
Task1.6.1.To complete the creation of four community forests safeguarding 15397ha by developing   simple management plans   4 Simple management plans validated Simple management plans    
Task1.6.2.To promote community based monitoring of great apes population in the corridor  through the engagement of  local rangers, VFMCs, eco-guards  and community forest  management institutions   Great apes  movement and ecology  documented Reports Data collected,ReportsGreat apes maps produced    
Task1.6.3.To continue the development of cottage industries (apiculture, forest base products value chain, palm kennel processing and livestock farming) while promoting conservation education and vocational training in the corridor   500 people  trained supported  with apiculture, forest base products value chain, palm kennel processing and livestock farming Reports PicturesReportsTraining manualsFunctioning sites  
Task1.6.4. Promote conservation education and vocational training   Women trained and empowered with different trades of work   More than 20 schools environmental clubs created and revived and functioning Reports Training manualReports PicturesAttendance sheetsVideos  
Task1.6 5.Establish effective community forest monitoring using  Global Forest  Watch  App as a Tool and remote sensing to  obtain informed decisions on deforestation and illegal hunting of  wildlife  and habitats destruction   Land cover changes  produced Anthropogenic  activities documented for effective management Reports Maps,data base    
Task 1.6.1.Production of a Technical note of the Banyang- Mbo- NFEAWS-Santchou corridor   Technical  note produced Technical note Technical note    
Task 1.6.2. Creation of 3 community forest in the gaps identified   3 community  forests created by a Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife Signature of the minister of Forestry and wildlife Signature of Minister of Forestry and wildlife    
Task1.6.3.To complete the creation of  the three community forests safeguarding  corridor by developing   simple management plans   3 Simple Management plan validated Simple management plans Signature of Minister of Forestry and wildlife    
Task1.6.4.To promote community based monitoring of great apes population in the corridor  through the engagement of  local rangers, VFMCs, eco-guards  and community forest  management institutions       Great apes  movement and ecology monitored Reports Maps,Data base    
2. To support local economic development      Task2.1.Promote livestock production   More than 200 community members trained and practicing animal farming Reports Pictures,Production stations,Training manuals,Attendance sheets          
Task2.2. Promotion of a sustainable apiculture practices   More than 200 people trained on apiculture Reports Training manuals,Attendance sheetsPictures,        
Task2.3.Valorisation of non timber forest products Value chained market established for NTFPs Reports PicturesProcessing station        
Task2.4.Creation and support cooperative enterprises 3 cooperatives enterprises  established Reports Legalized agreement          
3.To promote ecosystem restoration     Task3.1. Restore degraded areas 2000 ha of land restored in the Lebialem Highlands   Reports Nurseries  stationsPicture of restored areas      
4..To promote sustainable conservation finance Development Task 4.1. Develop a microfinance cooperative 2 micro finance cooperatives established Reports Legalized final agreement      
Task 4.2. Develop a forest protection fund A Forest Protection Fund established and strengthened   Reports Final agreement    
5. To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands     Task 5.1.Creation of the Lebialem highlands conservation platform for sustainable Development  Stakeholders forum created  and functioning   Attendance sheetsMeeting minutesPlatform created signature    
Task1.5.Promote conservation activities with the platform Conservation  Policies  developed and promoted Reports Policies documentMeeting minutesReport  
 6.To promote applied research across the landscape Task6.1 Promotion of fauna and flora research in schools Students promoted in conservation education Reports Research reportsResearch protocol  
Task6.1.  . To capitalize the projects conducted in the Lebialem Highlands since 2003 through publications and peer reviewed papers.     Data and reports gathered and articles produced Reports Copies of articles publishedData documented  
7.To Support gender mainstreaming into conservation for sustainable development in the Lebialem Highlands Task7.1. Mainstreaming gender into conservation activities NTFP are sustainably collected, transformed and marketed. 100 women gain support in petty business. Youths, girls and women sensitised  and promoted into sectorial planning Reports Pictures and reports of NTFPS valorizedPictures of women and report of their petty businessSectorial planning meetings minutes and attendance sheets  
Task7.2.Support sustainable management of human population   Reports Pictures and reports on women hygienes  

Project Governance/Implementation Team

This programme is run and implemented under seven thematic objectives which include;a)To consolidate the conservation of Great Apes population in the Lebialem Highland; b). To support local economic development  c) To promote ecosystem restoration  ,d) To support sustainable finance development; e) To promote effective landscape governance in the Lebialem Highlands;f) To promote applied conservation research across the landscape and  g) To mainstream gender into conservation and development in the Lebialem Highlands. Apart from allocating staff to directly implement the aforementioned objectives the project require technical funding support to run projects this is why the following positions (Strategy and international adviser, Chief International Adviser and United Kingdom Manager) are key for continuous execution of the programme. A communication officer is required for the dissemination of the project results and widening its activities.

Table2. Staff role in project implementation

       Project implementation team
Position Function
Strategy and international adviser Develop the strategic plan for the landscape
Chief International Adviser Network, provide technical assistance and widen conservation important of the Lebialem Highlands to international partners
United Kingdom Manager Identify funders and provide technical support
National Manager Coordinate the country activities and spearhead projects at Regional and National level.
Landscape Manager Oversees the running and implementation of the project and report directly to the partners and National Manager
Project coordinator Oversee the implementation of big projects and report directly to the Landscape management
Development fundraising officer Oversee the quality implementation of the project and develop new  methods of execution
Accountant and budget officer Account and  budget for project activities
Forestry officer Implement the creation of community forest and facilitate in other forestry areas
Livelihood officer Execute  livelihood projects in communities in the landscape
Agricultural officer Implement restoration projects through  setting of nurseries and trees planting
Bio-monitoring and Research officer Spearhead all research and bio-monitoring in the landscape
Consultant Hire on contract bases to facilitate other technical activities deem necessary
Project monitoring and evaluation expert Evaluate and monitor projects from the start to the end
Project communication officer Advance the conservation programme and raise awareness through TV and Radio talk shows
Project driver Project driver for the entire landscape