Combating Deforestation and Degradation: why we must redouble our efforts

Deforestation and forest degradation are the biggest threats to forests worldwide as most of the world’s forests are gradually vanishing into thin air. Deforestation occurswhen forests are converted to non-forest uses, such as agriculture and road construction and forest degradation occurs when forest ecosystems lose their capacity to provide important goods and services to people and nature. Today, most forested areas are being converted to non-forest land use such as arable land, urban use, logged area or wasteland. Combatting deforestation and degradation have undoubtedly been a daunting task to most national and international organizations. 

The world’s forests absorb 2.4 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, one-third of the annual CO2 released from burning fossil fuels. Forest destruction emits further carbon into the atmosphere, with 4.3–5.5 GtCO2eq/yr. generated annually largely from deforestation and forest degradation.

Over half of the tropical forests worldwide have been destroyed since the 1960s, and every second, more than one hectare of tropical forests is destroyed or drastically degraded. This intense and devastating pressure on forests is not limited to the tropics – an estimated 3.7 million hectares of Europe’s forests are damaged by livestock, insects, diseases, forest fires, and other human-linked activities. Some of these activities including; expanding agriculture, due to an increased population and shifts in diet, are responsible for most of the world’s deforestation. As the human population continues to grow, there is an obvious need for more food, logging, construction, bushfires, etc.

 However, forest loss is both a cause and an effect of our changing climate. Climate change can damage forests, for instance by drying out tropical rainforests and increasing fire damage in boreal forests. Inside forests, climate change is already harming biodiversity, a threat that is likely to increase.

Deforestation is very alarming as its detrimental both to our lives and our planet. Trees play a key role in the local water cycle by helping to keep a balance between the water on land and water in the atmosphere. But when deforestation or degradation occurs, that balance can be thrown off, resulting in changes in precipitation and river flow as watersheds that once supplied communities with their drinking water and farms with irrigation water, have become subject to extreme fluctuations in water flow. The loss of safe, potable water puts communities’ health at risk for a variety of communicable diseases.

  Fortunately, this so-called degradation can be remedied by us, if we are committed and determined. This can be done through actions like: Countries and other land owners are committing to FLR (Forest Land Restoration) through the Bonn Challenge – a global effort to restore 350 million hectares of degraded landcapes by 2030, launched by IUCN and Germany in 2011. The Bonn Challenge has so far generated pledges from governments and organizations to restore over 210 million hectares.  In line with this, Cameroon is committed to restoring 12 million hectares of degraded landscapes by 2030. Improving the health of these forest ecosystems and introducing sustainable management practices increases the resilience of human and natural systems to the impacts of climate change. However, in case of already damaged ecosystems, ecosystem restoration is the ideal solution, it’s for the people and for our planet.

Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF) has been working to protect forests for more than 20 years. ERuDeF works with governments, companies, communities and other stakeholders to promote certification for responsible forest management practices, combat illegal logging, reform trade policies, protect forested areas, and more. In this light, our main priority is ecosystem restoration where we have a vision of planting 300 million trees on 3 million hectares of degraded land in 15 years. This will be done across several Mountainous landscapes in Cameroon and the Central African sub-region. In 2018, we launched the Mt Bamboutos Initiative with a vision of planting 15 million trees on 35000 ha of degraded land impacting 30000 lives. As we continue with our efforts in restoring the Mount Bamboutos we are hopeful that with your support we are going to halt the phenomenon land degradation and massive deforestatio1an intact forest

Climate Change Hits Its Peak In Cameroon’s Southwest Region.

The Southwest Region of Cameroon is blessed with a variety of natural resources such as; forests, water bodies (waterfalls, rivers, lakes, and ocean), mountains and abundant wildlife species. These natural resources stand as touristic sites in Cameroon especially the Mount Cameroon that welcomes more than 4000 tourists annually for the Mount Cameroon race of hope. Moreover, climate in this region favors human habitation with temperature ranging from 16oC-26 oC and an annual rainfall of 1432.2 mm thus promoting agricultural practices. The presence of endemic wildlife (Cross river gorillas, chimpanzee, drills, pangolins and birds) has led to the creation of numerous protected areas for the conservation of these globally threatened wildlife species that also serve as touristic sites (MINFOF & WWF, 2006).

Over the past 2 decades, this region has been exposed to climate change as a result of Greenhouse Gaz (GHG) emission. Consequently, the population are facing abnormal recurrence of extreme weather phenomena such as violent winds, high temperatures, irregular rainfall, floods and landslides which endanger communities’ ecosystems and the services they provide. These environmental hazards are as a result of uncontrolled human activities which are not in conformity to environmental principles and disciplines, hence causing global warming. These activities include but not limited to deforestation, poor agricultural techniques, poor waste disposal, plastic pollution and the absence of infrastructural town planning.

There is much scientific evidence that climate change is responsible for; increase in epidemics, food and water scarcity, changes in temperature and precipitation, leading to droughts and floods, poor agricultural yields and malnutrition (P. Nde-Fon and J.C.N.Assob, 2013).

As climate change appears to be progressing too quickly for decisions to be delayed, we need to develop national and local climate change institutional frameworks to strengthen the coordination, networking and information flows at different levels of governments and local civil society to have better response to climate change eradication.

In response to this environmental crisis, ERuDeF seeks to reduce GHG emission in Southwest Cameroon through multi-partner cooperation and awareness raising. Specifically, we would;

Create a synergy of stake holders who have a common mission to fight against GHG emission,Raise the awareness of all GHG emitting sectors campaigns involving Civil Society Organizations (CSO),Increase stake holder’s commitment in the reduction of GHG through publication and production of documentaries.

The paper draws attention to the need to address the constraints of lack of awareness and poor flow of information on the potential quality environmental management strategies for climate change adaptation.

Discover Mount Kupe Muanenguba’s Rich Water Sources

Mount Kupe is a plutonic mountain in the western high plateau of Cameroon. It is the highest of the Bakossi Mountains, rising up to 2,064 meters (6,772 ft). Aside from its rich biodiversity, Mt.kupe is blessed with a total of 4 watersheds; River Manyu, River Nkam , River Moungo  and River Woun watershed. This richness in diverse water sources is also portrayed in the presence of numerous streams, springs, rivers and the beautiful twin lake of Mount Kupe Maunaguba with its unique features; the shape of the African map with its blue and green colors this lake was named twin lake by Kupe Muanenguba local communities, the female lake being for domestic uses while the male been for ancestral purposes and a touristic site. The Bakossi National Park serves as protection for these various watersheds. Its highest peak, the Muandelengoh (1895 m), stands towering near the Muandelengoh, Ndun, and Mualong villages south of the Mbwe valley, and is very noticeable from Bangem. The park holds a high flora and fauna biodiversity, with a high rate of endemism. The sacred forests and groves belonging to the local people but situated in the National Park have a significantly higher plant species diversity than the nearby Mount Cameroon.

This rich water source mountain is a unique hotspot for many primate species, including the Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), one of the most endangered primate species in the world, and the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Other primates include Preuss’s red colobus, Red-eared guenon, Preuss’s guenon, Putty-nosed monkey, Mona monkey and other important mammals like Blue duikers, Red river hog, Red-fronted duiker, Black-fronted duikers, Sitatunga, and Long tail pangolin.

Over the years this one’s rich afforested mountain has experienced deforestation due to shifting cultivation, logging of wood for timber, and expansion of human settlements and establishment of pasture lands. Every side of the mountain has been steadily converted to agricultural use. Forests have been cleared up to 1,500m on the eastern slopes and up to about 750m and 1,100m on the western and northern sides, above the villages of Mbule and Nyasoso. As of 2010, there was still primary mid-altitude and montane rainforest on the northern side. However, the beauty of its water sources remains outstanding and are treasured by the Kupe Muanenguba community.

“Birds connect our world” ERuDeF celebrates the world Migratory Bird Day

The Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF), remains resolute in conserving, restoring and connecting the integrity of ecosystems that support the movement of migratory birds, that face many cahllenges as they connect the world.  ERuDeF honors these beautiful winged creatures, but also raises awareness on the need for international cooperation to conserve them.

Migratory birds undertake regular seasonal movement often north and south along flyway between breeding and wintering grounds. Today, migratory birds still face serious threat, from loss of habitat, climate change, poisoning, power lines, illegal hunting, pollution and natural disasters. ERuDeF is therefore taking this opportunity for world migratory bird’s day celebration, to call on each and every individual to step up actions and adopt sustainable natural use methods to better protect migratory birds and the habitats they need to survive and thrive.

According to the CEO of Wetlands International, Jane
Madgwick, disrupting ecological connectivity between wetlands has great
consequences for migratory water birds that travel great distances between
their breeding and non-breeding grounds. The theme of the World Migratory Bird
Day 2020 is “Birds Connect Our World”. This year’s theme was chosen in order to
highlight the importance of conservation and restoration of ecological
connectivity and integrity of ecosystems that support the movement of these
birds.

Important outdoor activities for World Migratory Bird Day are bird watching, awareness raising and clean-up campaigns. ERuDeF is an environmental non-profit Cameroonian NGO with the mission to conserve biodiversity and protect fragile environments through research, training, education and community engagements. To celebrate the WMBD 2020, it organized a bird watching tour in the secondary forest area behind the University of Buea.

ERuDeF celebrates the World Earth Day

The
Environmental and Rural Development Foundation joined the world on April 22 in
celebrating the 50th anniversary of the World Earth Day under the theme
“Climate Action”. The ceremony started with a symposium on ERuDeF’s local theme
of the World Earth Day; “Change Management in a Changing Climate.”

CEO of ERuDeF poses for a picture during the tree planting exercise at the Wotolo Water Catchment

According to the president/CEO of ERuDeF, Louis Nkembi, 2000 trees will be planted across their principal landscape for ecosystem restoration which is the Mt. Bambotous Landscape, and about 200 trees will be planted in selected water catchments in the Buea municipality.

ERuDeF Executive Director planting a tree at the Wotolo Water Catchment

He also noted that, ERuDeF will be launching an essay competition on the impact of the Cameroon Anglophone and COVID-19 crises on the environment in Anglophone Cameroon. This essay shall carry a cash price of about $ 2000 and shall be awarded on June 05, 2020, that corresponds to the world Environment day.

ERuDeF staff poses for a picture during Tree Planting exercise

ERuDeF also visited the Wotolo Community Water Catchment, planting some trees (prunus africana), and promising to work with the community in sustaining and preserving the water catchment. According to the coordinator of the Wotolo Water Project, Chrisantus Anye Akama, this water catchment is the safest water source in Buea. He recounted how they have been suffering a lot in their neighborhood because of lack of potable water.

Director of CAWI

“The community has been going through a lot of hurdles because we don’t have clean water to drink. We are blessed with this natural stream which we can harness to be able to provide water for the community.” He noted they have about 500 houses in their community and about 2000 people will benefit from this water project if harnessed. “We thank ERuDeF for coming with this tree planting exercise. When they plant these trees, we are going to protect this environment and secure it from encroachment from animals and people.”

ERudeF staff scramble for water at the Wotolo water catctment

MBI midterm review meeting held: path covered in the first pilot phase of the life changing project, challenges and ways to overcome them

The midterm debriefing meeting for the first pilot phase of the Mount Bamboutos Initiative (MBI) project has taken place. The meeting took place at the headquarters of the Environment and Rural Development Foundation, ERuDeF in Buea on Friday April 3, 2020.

The review meeting which took place in the presence of the CEO of ERuDeF, Louis Nkembi, consultant of the review, Mr.Atabong Alex, project manager, Deh Nji Hermann and local Community Based Organization (CBOs) representatives was aimed briefing ERuDeF on the findings in the field, the challenges and identification of gaps. Also in the menu of discussion was devising means of getting funding for the 15-year project.

Talking during the meeting the, the CEO of ERuDeF
gave an over view of the MBI. He underscored the importance of restoring the
Mount Bamboutos ecosystem functions after 3 decades of continuous degradation
resulting from human activities. The Mount Bamboutos, Louis Nkembi posited, “is
the third elevation in Cameroon after Mount Cameroon and Mount Oku,
respectively”. The mountain, he continued, “is the second watershed in Cameroon
after the Adamawa Plateau”, wandering what would become of rivers and streams
that depend on this towering watershed if left to be degraded by indiscriminate
human activities. 

The consultant of the the midterm review, Mr. Atabong Alex presented his findings gotten from the 16 villages where the MBI project is taking place. He appreciated the efforts made by ERuDeF and its local partners in making the project a success in the first pilot phase. He equally pointed out some shortcomings he witnessed during his field assessment of the project. Among these shortcomings are: poor database of trees nursed and planted, a lack of mastery of the project document of funding partners (TreesSisters, Trees for the Future and Darwin Initiative) by ERuDeF’s local partners (Green Impact, Operation Green Space and PEDER). Mr.Atabong lamented the fact that the database of farmers taking part in the MBI project is not reflective enough. He equally recommended that communication should be improved at the level ERuDeF hierarchy and the technicians in the field. Mr. Atabong also suggested that nursery attendants should equally ensure a good follow up of nurseries so that nursed trees should not wither off as the case of some nurseries.

As concerns the gender aspect of the MBI project Mr. Atabong appreciated the work done so far by the gender team of ERuDeF as close to around 31% of the women are fully taking part in the project. To him, if the present momentum is carried forward to the second pilot phase of the project, the gender aspect of the project would be achieved in no distance time. He appealed that more and more youths should be made part of the project, as the youths are still to be fully involved

As concerns the long term funding of the project, there was a general consensus that more avenues should be explored to get funds in order to ensure the sustainability of the project. Also, it was observed that local CBOs lack the capacity to produce quality financial and narrative reports as expected by the funding partners of the MBI project, despite the fact that they have been trained on reporting, by the project accountant and manager respectively. More so, financial reports are not always submitted on time by these CBOs, making pre-financing inevitable. This is because ERuDeF disburses money only after such financial reports are submitted on time with adequate receipts.

Local CBOs representatives

Mr. Atabong also appealed that more online exposure
should be given to the Mount Bamboutos project.

All in all the meeting ended in a satisfactory note
with the CEO of ERuDeF, Louise Nkembi urging every one involved in the MBI
project to do what was left undone in the first pilot phase of the project in
the second pilot phase of the project. He acknowledged that there would still
be challenges but such challenged would be dealt with if team work and
dedication is put into practice by every one involved in the MBI project.

It should be noted that the Mount Bamboutos Initiative (MBI) is a project for the restoration of the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions of Mount Bamboutos in Western Cameroon. It is a joint initiative of the Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF), Cameroon and the International Tree Foundation (ITF), UK in collaboration with the government of Cameroon. The Mount Bamboutos ecosystem by 1960 was one of the most biodiversity rich mountains in continental Africa. Due to indiscriminate human activities in and around the Mount Bamboutos, the mountain has undergone tremendous degradation in the last 3 decades, thus the need to restore its ecosystem functions.

Partners

Promoting sustainable Agriculture through Forest Gardening

The Cameroon Forest Garden  project is supported by  TREES FOR THE FUTURE (TFTF) and implemented by  Environment and Rural Development Foundation (ERuDeF) in Cameroon. It aims to improve food nutrition and income security of  poor farmers through the restoration of degraded agricultural lands and optimization of smallholder farmers’ land. This  approach has  improved soil quality, increased food production, enhanced food security, and generated adequate fuel wood, fodder, fruits and medicinal plants. The project sites for 2019 were Mt Bamboutous Landscape (Bamboutos, Lebialem, Menoua and Mezam Divisions), Western High Plateau Landscape (Haunt-Nkam, Haut Plateau, Nde and Noun Divisions) and Nlonako – Muanenguba Landscape (Nkongsamba and Nlonako Divisions).

 A total of 660 farmers were mobilsed and trained on the various aspects of forest gardening with the successful planting of 1,860,146 trees accros the three landscapes. A total of 771   forest gardeners were registered.  The formation of cooperatives was an essential component of the forest garden approach with 57 local groups registered and 7 cooperatives are under the process of creation.  To cater for farm products, farmers field were more diversified through the introduction of multiple crops such as vegetable, maize, beans, plantain, pear, plum, Moringa, Neem, Prunus, cassava, coffee, cocoa. More diversified farms ensured food , nutrition and income security

Mr.  Keuneu Joseph  Alias Masa Yo is a model  forest gardener in Bana. He was delighted to share his journey with the agroforestry model of agriculture. “Some years back, I used to buy inorganic fertilizers and  pesticides to use in my farm with low yields that were not encouraging. I learned  about planting fertilizer trees to improve my poor soils. I will never forget Sorel from ERuDeF who taught me practically what to do. I followed her lessons keenly and today the situation is very encouraging. My harvest is bumper. I sold the surplus agro-produce at the local market. Besides the fertilizer and medicinal trees in my farm, I have been cultivating cocoa, coffee, pepper, vegetables, bananas, yams, cocoyams.   I often use the branches of fertilizer trees as stakes and fuel wood and use the leaves and twiggs as organic mulch and fertilizer. Since my farm is on a slope, I planted acacia on the hedges to reduce soil erosion during the rainy season. Last year, I earned about  200,000 FCFA from selling only chili pepper in the local market. I have also prepared my bee hives to install in the farm. The honey bee will feed from acacia and Leucianae flowers and other flowering plants in my garden. I am very grateful to the staff of ERuDeF for giving me such invaluable skills”.

The way forward for this project is to mobilise, register and train additional farmers in the landscapes with a vision to further capacitate the farmers and upscale the model of forest gardening being promoted by ERuDeF.

ERuDeF: Facilitating Community Development in Lebialem through the Rain Forest Trust Project

As a result of the launch of the Rainforest Trust Mak-Betchou project in October 2016 and the Rainforest Trust project in Tofala in January 2017, a staff member from ERuDeF was sent to the Lebialem landscape to execute sensitization, identification and prioritization efforts of village-based conservation livelihood projects. These projects are to be developed through value-chain cassava production and palm oil. The aim was to aid improve the livelihoods of those living in the Lebialem landscape by changing their agricultural practices from subsistence to commercial agriculture. Over 25 villages in the Njoagwi-Fotabong III Esooh-Attah forest bloc and Tofala forest bloc in the Lebialem landscape have been sensitized. In addition priority projects identified are likely to be developed in those respective villages with technical assistance from ERuDeF.

This technical assistance mentioned will take the form of marketing research, provision of beehives to the various villages, training of villagers on the projects chosen, machinery for transformation of farm produce and micro credit provision through the Community Conservation Social Enterprise Development (CoCoSED) Initiative.

Each village was asked to identify five village-based conservation livelihoods projects in order of importance as well as which  could yield economic benefits and conserve biodiversity. This exercise was executed in all villages adjacent to Mak-Betchou and Tofala forest blocs in the Lebialem Landscape. Common projects identified were as follows; cassava production, bee keeping, piggery, palm oil production and maize farming.

These projects identified are quiet economically viable and if developed, will bring sustainable development to villages and improve livelihoods. Sustainable development will in effect reduce pressure on the forest from the local community; consequently conserving biodiversity.

The locals of these villages were incredibly excited for this opportunity ERuDeF has brought to their door steps and have thus promised full collaboration for effective and successful implementation of the CoCoSED Initiative. They also expressed their gratitude to ERuDeF  for igniting  hope within them for the  future development of their villages.

These projects will also aid in reducing pressure on the forest thus leading to biodiversity conservation.

Small-holder Farmer with Entrepreneurial Mindset Embraces Forest Garden Practices in Bakassa, Haut-Nkam Division

Nitcheu Jean Baptiste, a small holder farmer in Bakassa, passionate about agriculture, has achieved prosperity from his farm since he adopted Forest Garden practices.

Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agro forestry system on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans.

TREES FOR THE FUTURE, in partnership with ERuDeF (Department of Agroforestry), have introduced the Forest Garden Model across all landscapes they work in, within Cameroon. The purpose is to plant trees that will help in restoration and environmental conservation, increase food crop profits and income levels of smallholder farmers. Bakassa is a community in one of this landscapes in which framers are practicing the Forest Garden system of farming.

Nitcheu Jean, one of these farmers implementing this practice, grows crops such as maize, beans, cocoyams, vegetables, tomatoes, spices, fruit trees (pear, passion fruit), acacia, leucaena  and neem, on his farm. All of which, he aligns in a pattern that suits the forest garden model. His farm is a perfect example of what this model resembles.

Being passionate about Agriculture with an entrepreneurial mindset, Jean Baptiste uses plastic cups to nurse tomato cuttings.

I use white plastic cups to multiply tomato cuttings. Usually, I cut the cuttings, dip them in water, put them in plastic cups and cover with white plastic. After two weeks, I transplant the tomato cuttings. I also perform the same practice for pepper but the difference is that I nurse the seeds directly into the plastic cup“, said Nitcheu Jean-Baptiste.

We’ve discovered that this method is economical as people demand tomatoes /pepper throughout the year”, He added.

The major challenges he encounters are those of pests (insects) that destroy crops and as well as the lack of consistency in water supply.

This practice serves as a source of income as he generates healthy profits from it. Mr. Jean Baptiste gains additional income from pears, bananas, passion fruit, spices, beans, maize, coco yams he has on his farm. Medicinal trees such as Acacia aid in improving soil fertility and retaining water content on his farm, thus increasing productivity.

Market Gardening: Target for Crime and Insecurity in Mt. Bamboutos Areas

Market gardening, that employs more than 80% of the rural population of  the Mt. Bamboutos area and contributes greatly to the country’s per capital income, has been causing social insecurity in the rural communities. These mal practices include nocturnal harvestingof crops on farms, stealing of farm inputs, burgling of storage houses for cash crops, and land conflicts. These practices stem from degraded agricultural soils, lack of wetland positions to cultivate during  dry seasons, livestock grazing, price hikes in farm inputs( such as fertilizers and manure) and poverty. These have led to a decline in production volumes (food insecurity), destruction of livestock, crops, houses, and loss of human lives in villages such as Nkongle, Pinyin, Mbelenka, Atsualah, Maghah,  Mbei, Njong, all at Mt. Bamboutos area.

Market gardening is a farming practice which entails the cultivation of highly perishable crops that are consumed and or transformed within a relatively short period of time. The farming system , which has been practiced since the 1980s and is now practiced in the Mt. Bambutous area, is responding to the decline in prices of coffee and the resulting economic crisis in Cameroon. It is practiced all year round mostly around the high lava plateau during the rainy season, as well as in wetlands, during the dry season. During the rainy season, market gardening is economical and less strenuous as it requires minimal inputs and labor. A major that attributes to less stress to market gardening during the wet season is the  availability of water for crops ; thus requiring farmers to not need watering cans, sprinklers, and water pumps or hired laborers. Due to this, most farmers participate in farming practices during this wet season. The dry season however, is characterized by intensive application of inputs such as pesticides, fertilizers, and the use of genetically modified seedlings, to increase production alongside widespread use of irrigation waters. Consequently, only rich farmers are able to participate in farming during the dry season while those who cannot afford to are excluded from production and become vulnerable to crime. The communities involved in this farming practice include: Pinyin, Njong, Baligham,  Mmuock Leteh,  Fosimondi, Bamumbu, Santa Mbei and Lebialem at the Mt. Bamboutos area. Some market garden crops which are grown include; carrots (Dancus carrota), irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), cabbage (Brassica Oleraceae), Leeks (Allium porrum) and celery (Apian graviolens).

The farming system is highly beneficial to the livelihoods of the communities involved. Research shows that market gardens employ 80% of the rural populations on a yearly basis. It is mostly practiced by youths between 18-35 years of age. The committed communities in the farming practice have won major prizes in potatoes (first), carrots (first), and cabbage (second) amongst others during the 2011 edition of the National Agro-Pastoral shows in Cameroon. Production is executed in large quantities and sold all over the country, with some exported to many other countries in Africa. Examples of the latter are Irish potatoes which are exported to Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana.

Market gardening, being the most surviving farming practice in the area, has recently been regarded as a target for crime and insecurity of the 30000 people living in the area. This correlation is due to the high population density and the ongoing pressure on land. For instance, there are about 325 persons per km² in Mmuock Leteh, 295 persons per km² in Fosimondi, 385 persons per km² in Pinyin, and 305 persons per km² in Santa which have aggravated tension over land and opened confrontation between villages. It is important to note that insecurity in these areas is mostly caused by unemployed youths who act out their frustration, stemming from the economic situation of the country (unemployment rate of 9.3 per cent, underemployment rate 68.8 per cent) by participating in theft and the fight for farm lands. Thus, the high insecurity rate at Mt. Bamboutos is attributed to poverty.

Introducing Agro-forestry techniques will promote food security and employment, thereby economically sustaining at least 75% of market gardeners at the Mt. Bamboutos area.